According to the latest figures on Turkish central government budget appropriations and outlays for R&D in 2018, federal investments in R&D increased 17.5% in 2018 to total TRY 10.7 billion ($2.2 billion). For 2017, this represented 0.34% of the country’s GDP and 1.4% of total central government budget expenditure. The figures include federally backed R&D that is performed in government institutions, as well as federally backed R&D in the business enterprise, nonprofit, higher education and international sectors. In 2017, indirect R&D support, which is calculated using data from the Ministry of Finance and includes tax incentives and exemptions, equaled TRY 2.88 billion ($605.2 million), an increase of 35.0%. The majority of federal budget appropriations, or 41%, went towards general advancement of knowledge, which includes R&D financed from general university funds. Defense received 29% of government R&D expenditures, while 8% and 5% went towards industrial production and technology, and education, respectively. Transport, telecommunication and other infrastructures accounted for 4% of federal R&D appropriations, and all other R&D objectives made up the remaining 14%. Source: Turkish Statistical Institute

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